27 February 2024 05:51 AM

Egypt and the Palestinian cause

Sunday، 25 November 2018 - 04:01 PM

Since 1948, the Palestinian cause is the first Arab cause, where it has received the greatest attention from all the Egyptian leaders, especially after the British evacuation from Egypt, but each President dealt with it in a different way.

Late President Gamal Abdel Nasser was one of the most interested leaders of the Palestine cause, considering it a part of the Egyptian security, not just an cause, so it was seen as a part of Egypt.

When Late President Anwar El Sadat took office, the situations changed slightly after the signing of the Camp David Accords, which focused on achieving peace with Egypt and at the same time demanding the full rights of the Palestinian people. When Former President Hosni Mubarak assumed his office, he followed Sadat’s approach.

Now Egypt is seeking in various friendly ways to calm the situations in the Gaza Strip and reaching just and comprehensive solutions. We explain the interests of the Egyptian political decision maker to the Palestinian cause since 1948 until now through presenting a number of axes as follows:

First: Egyptian leaders' interest with the cause

Through reviewing Egypt’s role ,government and people, of the Palestinian cause for more than half a century, and Egypt's association with the Palestinian question , is a constant permanent relationship dictated by considerations of Egyptian national security and relations of geography, history, blood and nationalism with the Palestinians, so the Egyptian position on the Palestinian cause  in any stage was not subjected to the interests and has never been a paper for regional or international bargains.

Therefore, Egypt's association with the Palestinian cause has not been affected by the change of Egyptian regimes and policies. Before July 23, 1952Revolution what was happening in Palestine was of interest to the Egyptian national movement.

Egypt was a key player in the events before 1948 war, where the Egyptian army was at the forefront of the Arab armies that participated in the war, then the defeat in Palestine was one of the reasons for the outbreak of July 23, 1952 Revolution led by the Free Officers, who were provoked by the military defeat.

King Farouk and 1948 war

On May 28, 1946, Kings, Presidents and representatives of seven Arab countries met in Enshas to discuss the Palestinian cause and to face the emigration of Jews to the Palestinian territories in accordance with the Charter of Arab League, which states that the Arab countries must be defended in case of aggression. The participants in the summit decided to uphold the independence of Palestine, whose cause was the central issue in all conferences.

King Farouk also announced the participation of the Egyptian army in the 1948 war, realizing that the Egyptian and Arab public opinion had a desire to  contribute in the rescue of Palestine and to face his opponents of the politicians at the time which areYoung Egypt Party and the Muslim Brotherhood.

Abdel Nasser and “The Three No's”

Gamal Abdel Nasser put the Palestinian cause at the forefront of his interests, so his call for Khartoum Resolution known as "The Three No's", which raised the slogan "No peace with Israel, no recognition of Israel, no negotiations with Israel ". Egypt also had a great role in unifying the Palestinian ranks through the proposal to establish the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO).

In the second Arab summit held on September 5, 1964 in Alexandria, Egypt supported the PLO's decision to establish a Palestinian liberation army. In 1969, Abdel Nasser supervised the signing of the »Cairo « agreement in support of the Palestinian revolution. His defense on the cause continued until he passed away in 1970.

Sadat and the slogan of victory and peace

Late President Anwar al-Sadat's insight into Arab relations with Israel was insightful, so he was called as“Hero of War and Peace” among the Egyptian intellectuals, where Egypt fought the October War under his leadership, raising the slogan “victory and peace”.

We can not ignore Sadat's demands for the rights of the Palestinians during his speech before the Israeli Knesset calling for a return to the pre-1967 borders.

During the 7th Arab Summit held on November 29, 1973 in Algeria, where the conference approved two conditions for peace with Israel in which are Israel's withdrawal from all occupied Arab territories, foremost Jerusalem.

In October, 1975, The General Assembly of the United Nations adopted resolution no. 3375 calling upon the PLO to participate in all conferences related to the Middle East at the request of Egypt at the time, as a result of the declaration of Egypt and the Arab States in October, 1974 to support the right of the Palestinian people in establishing an independent national authority under the leadership of the PLO. Sadat's latest effort was what he initiated by inviting Palestinians and Israelis to mutual recognition.

Mubarak and land for peace

During the reign of former President Mohamed Hosni Mubarak, which lasted nearly 30 years, the Palestinian cause witnessed many and sharp developments,as a result of this, Egypt's positions and roles have evolved to stabilize this volatile region of the eastern border of  Egypt. The beginning was with the withdrawal of the Egyptian Ambassador from Israel after Sabra and Shatila massacre in 1982.

In 1989, Mubarak presented his peace plan, which included the need to resolve the Palestinian cause in accordance with the Security Council resolution and the principle of land for peace with the cessation of Israeli settlement. In September, 1993, former President Mubarak participated in the signing of Oslo Accord on the creation of a Palestinian self-government.

In 2003, Egypt supported the Geneva Accord between Israelis and Palestinians as a model of peace to pacify the region.

In 2010, when the Israeli bombardment of the Gaza Strip was renewed, the Egyptian leadership refused to open the Rafah crossing, stressing that it will not allow reconciliation at the expense of the country. Egypt's bestowal continued until the arrival of  President Abdel Fattah El Sisi, who promised the Palestinian people to stand by them, after Gaza was recently hit by a war.

Palestine in the heart after 25th January Revolution

The Egyptian Revolution raised the issue of restructuring the Egyptian foreign policy on the agenda, with the aim of restoring Egypt's regional and Arab role and dealing with the threats of Egyptian national security. In this context, the Egyptian-Israeli relations and Egyptian-Palestinian relations occupied an important place. Following the Revolution, demonstrations took place in front of the Israeli Embassy, and the building attached was raided and the Israeli flag dropped.

The impact of these events has been reflected in the rearrangement of some papers, where Israel submitted an official apology for the killing of five Egyptian soldiers on August 18, 2011.

Egypt has made great efforts to complete the Palestinian-Palestinian reconciliation between Hamas and Fatah and opened the Rafah crossing in accordance with new security arrangements in coordination with Fatah and Hamas to avoid accusing Egypt of promoting division. The announcement of these new arrangements for the management of the Rafah crossing came after the signing of the reconciliation agreement at the end of April 2011.

Sisi, the June 30 Revolution and the Palestinian cause

Some have tried to outbid on the role of Egypt on the humanitarian level also and the published in this regard is a set of lies, where Regional Director for International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) operations in the Near and Middle East, Robert Mardini, praised the close cooperation between the ICRC and the Egyptian government in efforts to alleviate the suffering of the Palestinian people in their current crisis. In this regard, Robert Mardini appreciated the Egyptian authorities allowing dozens of Palestinian patients to be treated in Egyptian hospitals, as well as allowing aid shipments of medicines, foodstuffs and medical supplies.

It is worth mentioned that former President Adli Mansour achieved a special achievement for the Palestinian cause, where Egypt succeeded in persuading “Fatah and Hamas” movements to sign the reconciliation agreement, which he has long sought and confirmed in his meetings and dialogues within ten months.

After President Abdel Fattah El Sisi has  taken office, the Palestinian cause remained a central issue for Egypt, where Egypt exertedmore efforts to ceasefire to avoid further violence and inject the blood of the innocent civilians of the Palestinian people who are paying the price of military confrontations in which they are not guilty, as well as the humanitarian efforts of Egypt through the opening of Rafah crossing to receive the Palestinians wounded and to supply food and medicine assistance for the Palestinian people.

Egypt is always a pioneer, where in light of its war against terrorism and confronting economic problems, President Sisi announced in May, 2016 on several axes:

1- Egypt will continue its tireless efforts to establish a Palestinian state on the borders of June 4, 1967, where East Jerusalem as its capital.

2- Reaching for a just and comprehensive settlement that would support the stability of the region and contribute to reducing the turmoil in the Middle East.

3- The need to preserve the Arab constants for the Palestinian cause.

4- Supporting the Palestinians in their next steps, whether by participating in the implementation of the French initiative or by going to the UN Security Council.

Second: Egyptian political support to the Palestinian cause

Egypt has been and remains the biggest supporter of the Arab cause as the main Arab State, where Egypt has not and will not give up its role as a regional power that leads, interacts and advocates the Palestinian cause. Therefore, measures and resolutions of a political nature have been adopted to support the Palestinian cause since its inception, which represented in the positions of its heads and officials in regional and international forums and conferences, as well as in confronting the Israeli aggression against the Palestinian people during the past 60 years.

In May, 1964:During the Enshas Emergency Summit, Egypt proposed the establishment of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and supported it as the legitimate representative of the Palestinian people with the aim of unifying the Palestinian ranks so that the Palestinians can present their own case in the international forums.

In September, 1964:Egypt participated in the Second Arab Summit in Alexandria during the period 5-11 September, which welcomed the establishment of the Palestine Liberation Organization, adopted the PLO's decision to establish a Palestinian Liberation Army and defined the obligations of member States to assist them.

In November, 1973:During the Sixth Arab Summit in Algeria from 26 to 28 November, Egypt strongly supported the efforts of the PLO until it was able to obtain full recognition from the Arab States as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people.

In October, 1974:During the Seveth Arab Summit in Rabat, Morocco from 26 to 29 October, Egypt and all Arab countries agreed to affirm the right of the Palestinian people to establish an independent national authority under the leadership of the Palestine Liberation Organization and all Arab countries should not to interfere in the internal affairs of Palestinian work. The Conference stressed the need to commit to restore all occupied Arab territories in the June 1967, aggression and not to accept any situation affecting the Arab sovereignty over the Jerusalem city, where the Arab Summit adopted the PLO as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people. In November, as a result of the Egyptian efforts, in 29th session of the General Assembly of the United Nations in the resolution No. 3236, affirmed the legitimate rights of the Palestinian people including the right to self-determination, independence and return.

In October, 1975: Based on an Egyptian proposal, in 30th session of the United Nations General Assembly adopted aresolution No. 3375 with inviting the Palestine Liberation Organization to participate in all efforts, discussions and conferences related to the Middle East.

In January, 1976:Egypt applied formally to the US Secretary of State and Soviet foreign minister as the heads of international peace conference to invite the Palestine Liberation Organization to participate in the conference when it resumed its activity. In May and October, Egypt has also twice requested the Security Council to consider urgently the situations in the occupied territories. The Security Council issued two statements reached by consensus condemning Israel's policies and practices as null, void and an obstacle to peace. In September, A proposal by Egypt to grant the Palestine Liberation Organization a full membership in the Arab League was unanimously approved, where the PLO has the right to participate in the discussions, drafting and decision-making concerning the Arab nation after its role was limited to participation in discussions on the Palestinian cause only.

In June, 1998:The PLO has been given some powers that allow its delegation to operate freely without the advantages of nomination for posts and voting, which are the exclusive advantages of countries.

In December, 1988: As a result of intensive efforts in which Egypt participated, the first US decision was issued to open dialogue with the PLO that opening the door to a new phase of peace efforts.

Third: Egypt’s support the real peace initiatives to establish Palestinian State

During the past five decades, the Egyptian leadership has been keen to find a legal document toestablish a Palestinian State recognized by the United Nations and its member states as well as regional and international organizations active in international politics. This concern stems from the full conviction that achieving this step is very important for achieving a just, comprehensive and lasting peace. In the following statement, we will review the steps taken by the successive Egyptian governments in this regard.

In 1962:Egypt supported the Palestinian declaration of a constitution in the Gaza Strip. The constitution states the establishment of legislative, executive and judicial authorities in the Gaza Strip, where the Palestinian government took Gaza City and its three authorities as headquarter.

In 1970: Egypt accepted Rogers Plan that included the need for peace in the region, negotiations under the auspices of the UN envoy to reach a final agreement, how to implement resolution No. 242 including the withdrawal of Israel from the territories that occupied in 1967 and a just settlement of the refugee problem with the Jerusalem status determination and arrangements related. As a result of the Egyptianinitiative, the General Assembly also issued its first resolution states the right of the Palestinian people to self-determination and succeeded in reaching the implementation of its proposal for the formation of committees to investigate the situations in the occupied territories, wherethe International Labor Organization (ILO), UNESCO, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Human Rights Commission have established. Thesecommissions are for inquiry that helped to form a global public opinion in support of the Arab viewpoint and opposes Israel's practices in the occupied territories.

On September 28, 1972: President Sadat who was the first to propose the establishment of interim Palestinian government in response to the claims of the then Israeli Prime Minister Golda Meir that there was no Palestinian people.

In November, 1977: As a result of the stalemate in the international peace endeavors after the military confrontation in October 1973 that threatened to explode the situation in the region, Egypt felt its great responsibilities and President Sadat announced his historic initiative and visited Israel. He emphasized before the Israeli Knesset the credibility of the Egyptian approach towards comprehensive peace, spoke strongly about the just and legitimate Arab and Palestinian rights, put forward a detailed plan for settling the conflict in the region that constituted a firm basis for the movement of the Egyptian diplomacy during the subsequent discussions and the need to recognize the legitimate rights of the Palestinian people, including their right to self-determination and the establishment of their independent State, as well as the return to the pre-1967 borders.

In February, 1981:President Sadat called on Palestinians and Israelis to recognize each other, who wasthe first to demand this idea during his European tour, which endorsed by calling for the establishment of interim Palestinian government that would exchange recognition with Israel.

In 1988:the Palestinian National Council approved on November 15 in Algeria the declaration document for establishinga Palestinian State (This was in response to an Egyptian call for more than a decade to establish an internationally accepted Palestinian government).

In June, 1989:former President Mubarak presented his plan for peace, including the need to resolve the Palestinian cause in accordance with Security Council’s resolutions No. 242 and 338, the principle of land for peace and the recognition of the political rights of the Palestinians with the cessation of all Israeli settlement activities. On October25, Egypt supported the five-pointinitiative of former US Secretary of State James Baker, which stressed the need for a Palestinian-Israeli dialogue as a first step towards peace in the region.

In September, 1993: Egypt participated in the signing of Oslo Accord reached by the Palestine and Israel and supported the principles, where stated that "the aim of the negotiations between Israel and the PLO is to form an interim Palestinian Authority elected for a transitional period of no more than five years leading to a final settlement on the basis of the UN Security Council resolutions ".

In August, 1995:Egypt had a prominent role until the signing of the Cairo Protocol, which included the transfer of a number of powers to the Palestinian Authority.On September 24,the Interim Agreement for the Expansion of Palestinian Autonomy was signed in Taba and then it was finally signed in Washington on September 28, 1995 in the presence of President Mubarak. In accordance with the Taba Agreement, Israel withdrawed from the major West Bank cities of which Jenin, Tulkarm, Nablus, Bethlehem, Qalqilyaand Ramallah.

In January, 1997:As a result of the Egyptian efforts, the Hebron Agreement was signed on the general framework of the security arrangements in the Hebron city and the subsequent stages of the redeployment. On May 27, Sharm El Sheikh Summit was held between President Mubarak and Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahuwith the aim of moving the peace process forward and discussing ways to remove obstacles to the resumption of negotiations between Israel and the Palestinians.

In December, 1997:Egypt participated in the initiative presented by the Arab Group to the United Nations, which calls for lifting the Palestinian representation in the United Nations from an observer to a semi-state, then this initiative was put forward again.

In May, 1998:The Egyptian-French initiative was launched, where the presidents Mubarak and Chirac called for an international conference to save the peace process between Israel and the Palestinian Authority and to find a new mechanism that ensures the implementation of these agreements in accordance with the Madrid Conference, which is based on the principle of land for peace. The initiative proposed that the conference be held in two stages, the first stage is attended by countries and elements that are interested in participating in the affairs of the Middle East, Europe and the major Arab countries, while Israel and the Palestinian Authority are participating in its second phase.

On October 23, 1998:Egypt supported the Palestinian side in its demand to abide by the "Wye Plantation" agreement reached with Israel as an application of the Oslo Accords, which gave the impression that there was a breakthrough on the road to peace.

In March, 2001: Egypt and Jordan have put forward an initiative to stop the violence, resume the peace negotiations and implement the settlemnents and security understandingsagreed between the Israeli and Palestinian sides. The European Union, the Secretary General of the United Nations, Egypt and Jordan must adhere to follow up and monitor the implementation processwith the need to stop settlement and provide protection for the holy places.

On June 6, 2002:Former President Mubarak proposed that the establishment of an independent Palestinian State be declared in 2003 and discussed thorny issues such as Jerusalem, settlements, refugees, borders and water, while taking into account the UN resolution No. 1397under execution that calls for the establishment of a Palestinian State alongside Israel for the first time.

On October 18, 2002:Egypt participated strongly in the efforts that led to the adoption of the roadmap plan adopted by the quartet committee, which includes a comprehensive vision to solve the Palestinian cause that leads to establishing a Palestinian State by 2005.

In December, 2003:Egypt supported the Geneva Initiative between Israelis and Palestinians as a balanced peace model that would end the conflict between the two sides and ensure the stability of the region. It also does not contradict the road map reached by the quartetcommittee, which includes the United States, Russia, the European Union and the United Nations. In addition, the document includes Jerusalem, refugees, borders and settlements.

In June, 2004:Egypt has launched an initiative to play a direct role in creating the atmosphere for the implementation of the Israeli withdrawal plan from the Gaza Strip. Egypt considered that Israel's withdrawal from any part of the occupied Palestinian territories is a win for the Palestinians and could be a real opportunity to stop the violence and bring the peace process back on track by setting the plan in the context of the implementation of the road map internationally supportedby the quartet committee and working to strengthen the Palestinian Authority to become a qualified and active partner in the political process.

In December, 2008:The Foreign Minister explained that Egypt believes that the negotiation process among Palestinians and the Israelis should be in a reasonable time frame and not an open one, saying that the efforts to preserve the Palestinian-Israeli negotiating process should not be turned into a goal that the international community forgets what all of us must achieve is the peace between the two sides.

In January, 2009: Chairman of the National Council for Human Rights (NCHR) stressed the importance of not turning the Palestinian cause into a humanitarian issue only, food assistance provided to the affected families in Gaza and opening the crossings because it means weakening and marginalization the cause at the international level, demanding that the establishment of an independent Palestinian State should remain the main axis and the only strategy for negotiations and international contacts. NCHR Chairman added that the events in Gaza and the sympathy of the international public opinion with the Palestinian causere-raised it back on the international scene intensively after being marginalized by Israel in cooperation with the former US Administration until become the fifth or sixth issue among the international priorities in front of United Nations, European Union and USA.

On February 1, 2009:Former President Mubarak informed former US President Barack Obama that the Palestinian cause can't afford postponement and he is looking forward to ending the occupation and establishing an independent Palestinian State without waiting, explaining that the region will not enjoy peace and security or get rid of the terrorism without getting the Palestinian people on their legitimate rights, while Hamas agreed to the Egyptian proposals during the meeting of Minister Omar Suleiman with Hamas members.

On September 26, 2008: The Foreign Minister pointed out that the Egyptian effort is aimed at reaching a Palestinian-Palestinian consensus to establish a technocratic Palestinian government, stressing that all the Palestinian factions signify their acceptance of the Egyptian proposal, where the Egyptian proposaldeals with many elements of dialogue.

In December, 2008: The Foreign Minister affirmed that Egypt will continue its efforts to achieve reconciliation among all the Palestinian factions, adding that these efforts are based on four principles agreed upon by all the Palestinian parties. The four principles are forming a national government, organizing legislative and presidential elections, restructuring the PLO and dismantling all military militiasto be replaced by Palestinian security forces, pointing out that the Egyptian move is based on two axes; the first axis is providing stability period to continue the Israeli-Palestinian negotiations and the second oneis ending the conflict between the Palestinian factions and unite the Palestinian ranks to agree together on the peace agreement with Israel.

Fourth: Sponsership of Palestinian-Palestinian dialogue

Egypt sponsors the Palestinian-Palestinian dialogue and has been hosted it in Cairo in frequent rounds since November 11, 2002 with the aim of helping these factions to achieve Palestinian reconciliation. Egypt has targeted the following objectives duringits sponsoring these dialogues:

- Needing to establish a unified political program among all the factions, where its main pillar is to authorize the Palestinian Authority to conduct negotiations with Israel on crucial issues.

- Any faction of the Palestinian factions or the Palestinian Authority should not to get out the unified political program or unilateral decision-making.

- Strengthening the Palestinian Authority and rebuilding the institutions of the PLO.

- Egypt has been keen to inform the Palestinian factions since the beginning of the dialogue that it has not an alternative to the Palestinian Authority and that all of them should think about the supreme interests of the Palestinian people and to unify their vision, which prompting international parties to return to interest the Middle East peace processafter they have become convinced that what is happening in the Palestinian territories has harmed the Palestinian cause.

Fifth: Financial and humanitarian support

Egypt has supported the Palestinian cause, whether directly or indirectly, where Egypt continues to support the cause and people of Palestine until obtaining its independence.The following are some statements that reflect Egypt's commitment to support the Palestinian cause:

In December, 2007:Over the last six years, Egypt has provided $ 48 million to support the Palestinian Authority, as well as more than $ 40 million in humanitarian assistance and training programs, former Foreign Minister Ahmed AbulGheit said.

On January 22, 2008:Egypt has affirmed its commitment to continue its contribution in extending the Gaza Strip to electricity without being affected by the Israeli measures. For its part, the Ministry of Electricity and Energy increased the electricity grid capacity in the isolated cities and villages of Gaza Strip to meet the needs of the Palestinians and ease the burden of the blockade imposed by Israel, especially in the field of electricity and energy.

On January 23, 2008:Former President Hosni Mubarak issued his directives to the government to provide food aid in cooperation with NGOs interested in providing assistance and allowing Palestinians to enter the Egyptian side to buy their food needs due to lack of food in the Gaza Strip.

On July 1, 2008:Egypt opened the Rafah crossing for the passage of Palestinians on both sides for three days, especially patients, casualties, humanitarian cases and students residing in Egypt and Arab countries.

In September, 2008:Egypt reopened the Rafah crossing to enter pilgrims and patients from the Gaza Strip to Egypt for two days.

In January, 2009:Former President Mubarak reviewed with the Italian Foreign Minister the revival of the peace process, the speedy reconstruction of Gaza, the provision of safe corridors to enter the humanitarian aid to Gaza and the Italian efforts to alleviate the suffering of the Palestinians in the Gaza Strip.

Sixth: The Military support

Since 1948, Egypt has borne a heavy military burden becauseof the keenness of the Government and the people of Egypt on protecting the Palestinian people from the Israeli offensive over the past six decades. Egypt has provided more than 100,000 martyrs and 200,000 wounded during its wars with Israel for Palestine. We briefly present the main stations of Egypt's military support for the Palestinian cause in the following:

In 1948:The Egyptian army intervened in May after the end of the Mandatory Palestine and the declaration of the establishment of the State of Israel, where the battles continued until the international forces intervened and imposed a truce. The Egyptian army has borne the brunt of the war against the Israeli forces, where Egypt's losses in this war were thousands of martyrs and wounded.

In 1967:Because of Egypt's position on the Palestinian cause, Egypt was the target of Israel's aggression on June 5, 1967, which changed the situations in the Middle East, where Israel has occupied the Palestine as whole, as well as large parts of Egypt and Syria.

On October 6, 1973:Egypt fought the military confrontation with Israel and imposed the problem of the Arab-Israeli conflict on the international arena.

On October 16, 1973: Late President Anwar al-Sadat called for the convening of an international peace conference to settlement the conflict in the Middle East, stressing the need for the participation of the Palestine Liberation Organization.

On October 22, 1973:In the light of the Egyptian initiative, the UN Security Council adopted Resolution no. 338, which called for a ceasefire, the implementation of UN Security Council Resolution no. 242 and the start of negotiations between the parties concerned to establish a comprehensive peace in the region, where the Egyptian diplomacy has focused its attention on promoting the Palestinian right and securing the necessary momentum for the PLO as the legitimate representative of the Palestinian people.

Seventh: Egypt’s assistance to Palestine in the field of science and technology

Egypt has contributed greatly to raising the scientific and technological level in addition to political, military, financial and other assistances. However, it did not ignore the importance of transferring technology to Palestine so that they would be in contact with the outside world.

The most important of these contributions are:

Universities:Egypt has assumed full responsibility for the education of the Palestinian youth in the Egyptian universities. Not only did Egypt do so, but it did not discriminate between Egyptian and Palestinian students, where Egypt treated the Palestinians as Egyptian citizens of the first class.

Technology Transfer:Egypt has transferred technology to Palestine, where it has contributed significantly to the establishment of infrastructure and roads and providing universities and institutions with modern technological means to alleviate the suffering of the Palestinian people.

Satellite Channels:Egypt has also gave the Palestinians the right to express their views and present their issues by allocating satellite channels on the Egyptian satellite ‘NileSat’ so that they can present their issues to the Arab and international world as well.

Scientific Exchange:Besides receiving Palestinian students, Egypt sent delegations of Egyptian faculty members to teach Palestinian students who are not able to learn in Egypt, in addition to hosting the Egyptian universities the Palestinian faculty members in order to obtain the necessary training and courses to raise their educational level and learn about the modern scientific methods and applicates it in Palestine.

Eighth: Egypt's position on the demographic change and judaization of Jerusalem

Egypt has always warned against Israel's plan for the demographic change and the judaization of Jerusalem, which explainedatEgypt’s statement before Extraordinary Organization of Islamic Cooperation(OIC) Summit on Palestine and Al-Quds Al-Sharif concluded in March, 2016with the adoption of the Jakarta Declaration and the resolution of the summit.

The statement repeated Egypt's persistent warnings about the fierce attack on the occupied Jerusalemcity, the plans to change the identity and landmarks of the holy city, and obliterate the Islamic culture, as well as manipulating the demographic situation of its population.

The statement also stressed the need to give a special importance to support the people of Jerusalem who are subjected to the worst forms of discrimination as they are the first line of defense in the face of the ongoing Judaization. As well as the importance of alleviating the deterioration that the Gaza Strip suffered from with the continuation of the Israeli blockade. We can inferencea number of previous Egypt’spositions in this regard:

On November 29, 1948:Egypt opposed United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine, where it denied the right of the Palestinian people to the full exercise of self-determination over its entire territory.

In 1950:Egypt opposedthe plans that targeted the West Bank, stressing that it belongs to the Palestinian people, and demanded the recognition of the legitimate rights of the Palestinian people on its territory.

In September, 1977:Egypt requested the General Assembly to examine the illegal Israeli measures in the occupied territories aimed at changing the legal and demographic status of these territories in contravention of the International Charter Principles and the United Nations Resolutions.

In July, 1980:Egypt objected to the decision taken by Israel on May 15, 1980 to annex the Jerusalem, asserting that it did not recognize any geographical or political changes in Jerusalem, and thepermenant peace would not be achieved in the region without Israel's full withdrawal from all Arab territories occupied in 1967, including East Jerusalem.

In April, 2005:Egypt stressed its deep keenness on the safety of Al-Aqsa Mosque, where the Egyptian ambassador to Israel said that he was closely following the movements of Jewish extremists on the Al-Aqsa Mosque, as well as the People's Assembly and the Egyptian government condemned the aggression on Al-Aqsa Mosque.

In February, 2007:former Foreign Minister Ahmed AbulGheit said that Egypt expresses its deep concern and resentment at the Israeli excavations and demolitions near Buraq Wall next to the Al-Aqsa Mosque, calling on the Israeli authorities to immediately stop any activity or construction in this area or to do any act that would provoke the feelings of Muslims.

In December, 2007:In its statement before the United Nations, Egypt called for a vote on the need to preserve the special status of Jerusalem and the illegality of all procedures taken by successive Israeli governments in order to change that situation.

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