05 October 2023 02:41 AM

Giza pyramids

Saturday، 11 June 2022 - 02:27 PM
Giza pyramids

Giza Pyramids are located on the Giza Plateau in the Giza Governorate on the west bank of the Nile River. It was built about 25 centuries BC, between 2480 and 2550 BC. It includes three pyramids: Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure.



The pyramids are royal tombs that each one bearing the name of the king who built it and was buried there. The hierarchical construction here is a stage of the development of tomb architecture in ancient Egypt.



It started with a small pit that turned into an underground room and then into several rooms topped by a terrace, and then evolved to take the shape of a stepped pyramid by the engineer Imhotep. He was the minister of Pharaoh Djoser in the Third Dynasty. This was followed by two attempts by King Sneferu, the founder of the Fourth Dynasty, to build a complete hierarchical form. But the back of the two pyramids is not sound. They are located in Dahshur, one of them is flat in base and the other has a smaller shape, approximately half the size of the first.



Hierarchical shape

As for the idea of ​​the pyramid in particular, their hierarchical shape was linked to the idea of ​​the origin of the universe, and they also believed, according to some of their writings and religious texts, that the pyramid was a means to help the soul of the deceased reach heaven with the god Ra.


And we can sometimes see the sun’s rays among the clouds, which take a pyramidal shape as well, and it was among these many means that could help them ascend to the sky.


We also see the pyramidal shape at the top of the obelisks and some small tombs of individuals in southern Egypt. As such when the kings of the modern state thought about building their tombs on the western mainland in the Valley of the Kings and carved them in the bottom of the mountain to protect them from theft, they did not abandon the pyramidal shape, which was represented at the top of the mountain itself  and in a natural way.


Great Pyramid or Khufu Pyramid


It is the most controversial and imaginative monument of the world, and the only one of the remaining seven wonders of the world so far. Many have promoted a lot of legends and novels around it. Some have rumored that the inhabitants of the lost continent of Atlantis are the builders of the pyramids, and others have assumed that giants from the underground ascended to build this pyramid.


Others claimed that the pyramid was built by magic, or that aliens descended from space and built it. There are  also many accounts that indicate the extent of the excitement and mystery of this huge architectural building. The construction of the Khufu pyramid dates back to about 2560 BC.


The construction of the pyramid of King Khufu is a major cultural shift in ancient Egypt history. Khnum Khufu was influenced by his father, King Sneferu, in building his pyramid.After his death, King Khufu  become the god Horus and also the ruler of the earth, and it became necessary for him to think about building his tomb, which is the first national project in ancient Egypt, which was built by professional workers from all over Egypt.


The Great Pyramid, with its original height of 148 meters, remained the highest building completed by man on earth over a period of 3800 years, and it is the largest structure built by man.




It is one of Giza pyramids in Egypt. It was built by King Khafre, the fourth king of the fourth dynasty, the son of King Khufu. He married Princess Ankh berths.  He ruled twenty-six years.  He built the second pyramid of Giza pyramids. It is also lower than the pyramid of his father (Khufu). It was 143 meters high and now 136 meters.


It was built over an area of ​​215 square meters. It has two entrances on the north side. It still retains part of its outer covering at the top. Within its hierarchical group, statues of schist stone were found in the private valley temple, including a statue of the most beautiful Egyptian sculpture produced, and it is located in the Egyptian Museum, and is attributed to him carving the rock of the Sphinx.


Khafre pyramid is located southwest of the pyramid of his father Khufu. Its height is 143.5 meters; the length of each side is 215.5 meters; and the angle of inclination is 53.10 degrees. It is located at ground level. The entrance leads to a descending corridor, with a granite roof and a slope of 22 degrees.


It ends at a parapet that leads to a horizontal corridor, then a ramp leading to a cellar mistakenly called the burial chamber, which is empty carved in the rock, and the vestibule leads to another parapet that rises upward with a horizontal corridor that ends with the burial chamber. The pyramid, Khafre called his pyramid (the Great).


Menkaure's pyramid

 It is one of Giza pyramids in Egypt.  It has been built by Pharaoh Menkaure, son of King Khafre. Each of its sides is 108.5 meters long and 65.5 meters high, and now 62 meters after the fall of its outer covering.

 Its inclination angle is 51°20′25″, and its entrance is to the north. The entrance rises about 4 meters above the ground, and leads to a 31-meter-long descending corridor. And the angle of inclination is simple about 17 degrees.


It was built of limestone, but Menkaure chose to build the lower part of it from the granite that was brought from Aswan via the Nile River. The height of coverage with granite stones is about 17 meters. The rest of the coverage was done with white toura stones up to a height of 5 and 65 meters.


At the end of the inclined corridor there is a vestibule lined with stone, leading to a horizontal corridor with 3 barricades, and then the burial chamber. He was found on a wooden coffin bearing the name of Menkaure and his mummy. The mummy of Menkaure is now preserved in the British Museum. Menkaure gave his pyramid the name (Al-Muqaddas).



To the south Menkaure pyramid there are three pyramids dedicated to the queens. It extended east-west of the first pyramid, belonging to the second queen Khamar Nabti, the wife of King Menkaure.




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