19 April 2024 10:38 AM

The Organization of Islamic Cooperation

Saturday، 18 March 2023 - 01:11 AM


The Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) is an international organization consisting of 57 member states. The organization attempts to be the collective voice of the Muslim world and to safeguard the interests and ensure the progress and well-being of its member countries in an atmosphere of international peace.
The OIC has a permanent delegation to the United Nations. The official languages of the OIC are Arabic, English and French.
 
The OIC has 57 members, 56 of which are classed by the United Nations as member states. Some, especially in West Africa, are - though with large Muslim populations - not necessarily Muslim majority countries. The collective population of OIC member states is between 1.3 billion and 1.5 billion.
 
Leaders of Muslim nations met in Rabat to establish the OIC on 25 September 1969. In 1972, the OIC foreign ministers approved the OIC charter. The OIC aims to preserve Islamic social and economic values; promote solidarity among member states; increase cooperation in social, economic, cultural, scientific, and political areas; uphold international peace and security; and advance education, particularly in the fields of science and technology.
 
It changed its name on 28 June 2011 from the Organization of the Islamic Conference to its current name.
 
Member States
 
 
States
Date of Joining
1
Azerbaijan
1992
2
Jordan
1969
3
Afghanistan
1969
4
Albania
1992
5
United Arab Emirates
1972
6
Indonesia
1969
7
Uzbekistan
1996
8
Uganda
1974
9
Iran
1969
10
Pakistan
1969
11
Sudan
1969
12
Turkey
1969
13
Tajikistan
1992
14
Djibouti
1978
15
Algeria
1969
16
Burkina-Faso
1974
17
Senegal
1969
18
Saudi Arabia
1969
19
Turkmenistan
1992
20
Chad
1969
21
Togo
1997
22
Tunisia
1969
23
Bahrain
1972
24
Benin
1983
25
Brunei-Darussalam
1984
26
Bangladesh
1974
27
Syria
1972
28
Suriname
1996
29
Sierra Leone
1972
30
Somalia
1969
31
Iraq
1975
32
Oman
1972
33
Gabon
1974
34
Gambia
1974
35
Guyana
1998
36
Guinea
1969
37
Guinea-Bissau
1974
38
Palestine
1969
39
Comoros
1976
40
Kyrgyz
1992
41
Qatar
1972
42
Kazakhstan
1995
43
Cameroon
1974
44
Cote D'ivoire
2001
45
Kuwait
1969
46
Lebanon
1969
47
Libya
1969
48
Maldives
1976
49
Mali
1969
50
Malaysia
1969
51
Egypt
1969
52
Morocco
1969
53
Mauritania
1969
54
Mozambique
1994
55
Niger
1969
56
Nigeria
1986
57
Yemen
1969
 
Observer States
 
States
Date of Joining
1
Bosnia and Herzegovina
1994
2
Central African Republic
1996
3
Kingdom of Thailand
1998
4
The Russian Federation
2005
5
Turkish Cypriot State
1979
 
Structure and organization
 
The OIC system consists of:
 
Islamic summit
 
The largest meeting, attended by the kings and the heads of state and government of the member states, convenes every three years.[clarification needed]The Islamic Summit takes policy decisions and provide guidance on all issues pertaining to the realization of the objectives as provided for in the Charter and consider other issues of concern to the Member States and the Ummah.
 
Islamic Conference of Foreign Ministers
 
It meets once a year to examine a progress report on the implementation of its decisions taken within the framework of the policy defined by the Islamic Summit.
 
General Secretariat
 
It was established by the First Islamic Conference of Foreign Ministers, held in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, in Muharram 1390H (February 1970). The General Secretariat comprises a Secretary General who is the Chief Administrative Officer of the Organization and such staff as the Organization requires.
 
Standing Committees
 
In order to advance issues of critical importance to the Organization and its Member States, the Organization has formed the following Standing Committees:
· Al Quds Committee, located in Rabat, Morocco.
· Standing Committee for Information and Cultural Affairs (COMIAC), located in Dakar, Senegal.
· Standing Committee for Economic and Commercial Cooperation (COMCEC) , located in Ankara, Turkey.
· Standing Committee for Scientific and Technological Cooperation (COMSTECH), located inIslamabad, Pakistan.
 
Subsidiary organizations
 
The under-mentioned Organs are established within the framework of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) in accordance with the decisions taken by the Islamic Summit or the Council of Foreign Ministers. Member States shall automatically become members of these organs and their budgets shall be approved by the Council of Foreign Ministers.
· The Statistical, Economic and Social Research and Training Centre for Islamic Countries (SESRIC), located in Ankara, Turkey.
· The Research Centre for Islamic History, Art and Culture (IRCICA), located in Istanbul, Turkey.
· The Islamic University of Technology, located in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
· The Islamic Centre for the Development of Trade, located in Casablanca, Morocco.
· The Islamic Fiqh Academy, located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
· The Executive Bureau of the Islamic Solidarity Fund and its Waqf, located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
· The Islamic University in Niger, located in Say, Niger.
· The Islamic University in Uganda, located in Mable, Uganda.
 
Specialized institutions
 
These are established within the framework of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) in accordance with the decisions of the Islamic Summit or Council of Foreign Ministers. Membership to these organs is optional and open to OIC Member States. Their budgets are independent of the budget of the Secretariat General and those of the subsidiary organs and are approved by their respective legislative bodies as stipulated in their Statutes.
 
To-date, four specialized institutions have been established and they are located in different capitals and cities in the Islamic World - they are the following:
· The Islamic Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (ISESCO), located in Rabat, Morocco.
· Islamic Development Bank (IDB), located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
· The Islamic States Broadcasting Organization (ISBO), located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
· The International Islamic News Agency (IINA), located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
 
Affiliated institutions
 
Membership to these institutions is optional and open to institutions and organs of OIC Member States. Their budgets are independent of the budget of the Secretariat General and those of subsidiary and specialized organs. Affiliated institutions may be granted observer status by virtue of a resolution of the Council of Foreign Ministers. They may obtain voluntary assistance from the subsidiary and specialized organs as well as from Member States.
· Islamic Chamber of Commerce and Industry (ICCI), located in Karachi, Pakistan.
· World Islamic Economic Forum (WIEF), located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
· Organization of Islamic Capitals and Cities (OICC), located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
· Sports Federation of Islamic Solidarity Games, located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
· Islamic Committee of the International Crescent (ICIC), located in Benghazi, Libya.
· Islamic Ship-owners Association (ISA), located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
· World Federation of International Arab-Islamic Schools, located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
· International Association of Islamic Banks (IAIB), located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
· Islamic Conference Youth Forum for Dialogue and Cooperation (ICYF-DC), located in Istanbul, Turkey.
· General Council for Islamic Banks and Financial Institutions (CIBAFI), located in Manama, Bahrain.
· Standards and Metrology Institute for Islamic Countries (SMIIC), located in Istanbul, Turkey.
· Federation of Contractors from Islamic Countries (FOCIC)
 
Summit Conferences
 
Number
Date
Country
Place
1st
22–25 September 1969
Morocco
Rabat
2nd
22–24 February 1974
Pakistan
Lahore
3rd
25–29 January 1981
Saudi Arabia
Mecca and Ta’if
4th
16–19 January 1984
Morocco
Casablanca
5th
26–29 January 1987
Kuwait
Kuwait City
6th
9–11 December 1991
Senegal
Dakar
7th
13–15 December 1994
Morocco
Casablanca
1st Extraordinary
23–24 March 1997
Pakistan
Islamabad
8th
9–11 December 1997
Iran
Tehran
9th
12–13 November 2000
Qatar
Doha
2nd Extraordinary
4–5 March 2003
Qatar
Doha
10th
16–17 October 2003
Malaysia
Putrajaya
3rd Extraordinary
7–8 December 2005
Saudi Arabia
Mecca
11th
13–14 March 2008
Senegal
Dakar
4th Extraordinary
14–15 August 2012
Saudi Arabia
Mecca
 

 

 
Establishment of OIC
 
In the aftermath of the Israeli criminal arson of the Holy Aqsa Mosque on the 21st of August 1969, Egypt was among the first countries that responded positively to the call of convening an Islamic Summit in Rabat from the 22nd till the 25th of September 1969 in order to address that matter. During the conference sessions, Egypt was also among the countries supportive to the idea of establishing an International Islamic entity to confine the proceedings of the Conference to the purpose of discussing the Palestinian Cause.


First: The Egyptian role in establishing an International Islamic entity

In modern history, some Egyptian religious and political figures believed in the necessity of establishing an Islamic entity with an international character. They exerted sincere efforts at the beginning of the twentieth century to materialize such notion. Actually, the first indications of their success began to materialize after World War I, particularly when Egypt participated in a series of Islamic conferences, such as the one held in Mecca in 1924 and the Islamic world conference in 1926, as well as the General Islamic conference hosted by Egypt in May 1926, which was one of the first conferences calling for the unity of the Islamic world.

Second: Egypt and the 1st Islamic Ministerial Conference

Being enthusiastic to establish that International Islamic entity, Egypt participated in the first Islamic Ministerial conference held in Jeddah in March 1970. That Conference was entrusted by the Rabat Summit to assess the possibility of establishing a permanent general secretariat, which would be authorized to contact the Governments represented in Jeddah conference, and to consider drafting a charter for a new Islamic organization. As a matter of fact, the Jeddah conference became a significant turning point in the history of the Islamic world when it approved the establishment of an entity named “The Organization of the Islamic Conference”.

Egypt's participation in the various OIC meetings is always characterized by being active and serious towards resolving the problems confronting the Islamic countries. For Example, during the Second Islamic Ministerial conference in Karachi in December 1970, Egypt submitted a proposal for establishing an Islamic bank and a union of Islamic banks. Accordingly, Egypt was asked to prepare a comprehensive study of the project which was later submitted to the Third session of the Islamic Ministerial conference in Jeddah in March 1972, where it was decided to establish the “Islamic Development Bank”. Egypt was also a member of the committee held in Jeddah from the 21st till the 23rd of June 1971 with the aim of preparing a draft charter for the OIC, which was later adopted by the Third Ministerial conference in Jeddah in March 1972.

Third: Egypt's participation in the OIC activities

 

Throughout the years following the establishment of the OIC, Egypt Presented many proposals which enriched the joint Islamic work, and were put forward to the successive Islamic Summits. Those proposals can be illustrated by the following examples:

• Establishing specialized agencies affiliated to the OIC, such as “The International Islamic News Agency”, “The Islamic Educational, Scientific, and cultural Organization”, and the “Islamic Broadcasting Union” (Jeddah meeting for preparing the draft charter of the OIC – June 1971).
• Forming an expert team charged with the responsibility of developing an integrated approach to the concept of national security across the Islamic world and outlining the tools through which human and other capacities can be mobilized in order to prevent any aggression against the OIC member states (The Fifth Islamic Summit, Kuwait-January 1987).
• The necessity of confronting the despotic campaigns launched against the Islamic world through commitment to attain self-empowerment of all Islamic societies, enhancing the cohesion of its social components, protecting them from intrigues, and exerting efforts to protect Islamic culture from extremist interpretations which represent flagrant deviation away from what Muslim clerics presented in the glorious ages of Islamic prosperity. That Egyptian proposal emphasized the importance of building cooperation and communication bridges with non-Islamic countries (The Seventh Islamic Summit, Casablanca-December 2010).
• Calling for the complete elimination of illiteracy in the Islamic countries and drawing a cultural strategy with the aim of protecting the Islamic nation from being fused with any other culture (The Eighth Islamic Summit, Tehran-December 1997).
• Calling for a significant increase in the resources submitted by the Islamic countries and institutions to the “Intifada fund” and the “Jerusalem fund” which were established by the Cairo extraordinary Arab Summit in October 2000. There was a call as well for preparing a plan to develop the Islamic and Christian quarters of East Jerusalem; the Capital of the future Palestinian State (The Ninth Islamic Summit, Doha-November 2000).
• Presenting a comprehensive vision to develop the OIC, focusing on four items:

1. Commitment to activate and revitalize the OIC through providing the appropriate support needed for achieving that objective.
2. Defining clear priorities in the OIC plan of action and developing specific executive programmes, so as to achieve such priorities.
3. Activating existing mechanisms within the organization and achieving utmost coordination standards among them before establishing new mechanisms or structures.
4. The necessity of enhancing cooperation and coordination among member states in the international and the regional groupings (Extraordinary Islamic Summit, Mecca-December 2005).
5. Condemning all forms of defaming religions and humiliating religious symbols, and calling on the international community to adopt legislations criminalizing such attitudes which are considered to be a frank incitement to hatred, fanaticism and flagrant violation of human rights (Draft Resolution presented by Egypt and was adopted in the Eleventh Islamic Summit, Dakar-March 2008).

6. Reaffirming the role of Muslim women in the development of the OIC member states. In that regard, Egypt proposed to host a specialized agency for women development affiliated to the OIC, and this proposal was adopted by the Damascus Ministerial conference in May 2009, then the Statue of such agency was adopted by the following Ministerial conference in Dushanbe in May 2010.

Egypt participated in the Makkah-hosted Islamic summit in August 2012.

President Mohamed Morsi delivered a speech to stress the importance of cohesion between Egypt, Saudia Arabia, Turkey and Iran in solving the Syrian crisis.

Morsi also stressed that the Palestinian cause is the primary issue for Egypt and for the Arab and Islamic countries, calling on the Palestinians to be unified to achieve national reconciliation.

It is noteworthy that the Ministerial Preparatory Meeting for the 11th OIC Summit unanimously supported Egypt to host the 12th OIC Summit to be held in 2013. Egypt also will be handed the presidency of the summit for the coming three years (2013–2016).

Fourth: Egypt's vision to develop joint Islamic cooperation

Egypt will remain keen in developing joint Islamic cooperation, which stems from its deep belief in the common destiny of the Islamic countries and the necessity of revitalizing the principles and the noble objectives of the OIC, so as to enable this important institution to deal ably with the different challenges facing the Islamic nation.


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