29 May 2024 02:22 AM

Rasheed

Tuesday، 21 November 2023 - 10:07 PM
Rasheed

 

On the twenty-ninth of the year 1807, the date was with the heroism of the people of this city, where they achieved a great victory over the first English campaign (Fraser's campaign).

 


They believe that the origin of the name Rashid goes back to the ancient Egyptian word (Rakhit) meaning (the common people).


It was famous at that time for its military industry and succeeded during the reign of King Neptah, son of King Ramesses II, in shocking the Libyans and the peoples of the sea. King Psamtik I in the year 633 BC also set up a camp on the city’s coast to protect the country’s beaches.

 


In the Coptic era, it was called (Rashit), until the Arab conquest was at the hands of Amr ibn al-Aas, who entered it after he conquered the city of Alexandria in the year 21 AH.

And the Companions of the Messenger of God, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, were satisfied with the city’s residence, so they built it, erected houses, built mosques, and called it Rashid, which is still known by it until now.

 

Location:Rasheed it's one of Cities and centers of Beheira Governorate. It is an ancient port at the mouth of the western branch of the Nile in the Mediterranean Sea, which is named after it. Among its most important villages are the village of Al-Jediya, Al-Shamasma, Al-Hammad, Al-Amir, Izbat Al-Sharif, Edfina, and Burj Rashid.

 

Tourists’ attraction:

-National Rashid Museum : The museum consists of two buildings, one built as an archaeological one, consists of three floors, that dates back to the Ottoman Empire era and it was originally the house of the Arabs Kelly Governor Rasheed at the time.

The museum also displays 700 pieces of the most important golden coins and bronze one that dates back to the Umayyad and Ottoman eras, and a group of the Koran and pottery.


A unique group of Islamic buildings gather in the city, and it is known that it is the second city after Cairo in terms of the size of Islamic monuments.

 

The city includes twenty-two ancient houses, ten mosques, a bathhouse, a mill, a gate, a castle, and the remains of an old wall to the Mamluk era, and these houses were built of black Rashidi bricks, and the houses reflect what was distinguished by the people of the city in that (the era of the Ottomans and Turks) in terms of progress in architecture, carpentry and construction,

 

These buildings date back to the Ottoman era, with the exception of Qaitbay Castle and the remnants of the Rosetta Wall and the gate, so they go back to the Mamluk era.

It also reflects the Islamic character that existed at that time, including mashrabiyas, reception halls, kufic inscriptions, Sufi works, or domes built with bricks. Just as these houses were prepared to be housing and artistic masterpieces, they were also prepared to be war fortresses when needed in times of war.

 

 

Among the most important archaeological house found in the city:

-El-Amsely House: It was built by Othman Agha Al Tobgy. A general in the Ottoman army stationed in Rosetta, in 1808. It was taken over after then by Ahmed El-Amsely, who came from the city of Amasya in Turkey. The House overlooks two streets with two main doors. The North-facing entrance comprises a wooden door within scriptions from the Quran, “Verily, we have granted thee a manifest victory”.


 Hassiba Ghazal house: It was built on 1808.It was a supplement house   to El-Amsely House and It was dedicated to servants.  It consists of three floors, the ground floor and it has a store from the inside and above it is a room with a ladder from the store and the tank room.

 

-Al-Mizuni House: Its construction dates back to the year 1740 by Abd al-Rahman al-Bawab al-Mizuni, grandfather of Muhammad al-Mizuni, father of Zubaida al-Bawab, wife of Francois Jacques Mino, the third commander of the French campaign against Egypt, who converted to Islam after that and called himself Abdullah Mino.

The house consists of four floors, the ground floor. It contains a wing and a cistern room. The first floor for men contains rooms with windows of iron grilles (intersections), while the second floor is dedicated to the harem and has prominent mashrabiyas made of auspicious maple leaves.

The third floor contains rooms with windows made of calligraphy and the song room, and it has wooden cupboards and a square skylight, and it also has a bathroom that It is similar to the bathrooms of other houses in Rashid, and on the frontal façade of the house there is a room on the roof with the chimney, which starts from the first floor and ends at the top of the roof.

 

 

-Al-Asfour house: It is built in 1754 AD. It consists of three stories .The ground roles with Shader that  consists of granaries and rooms for rest and hall events, and its tank compartment which has spun copper surmounted by a marble plaque by the originator of the name of a (Ibrahim Blatih) in the Turkish language.The first stories have rooms with windows of ferrous Almsavat topped with skylights of turned wood.

The second floor rooms have windows and tasbil of turned wood. The last floor has a prominent windows of about half a meter.


 -Al-Qanadili house:  It has been built in the first half of the eighteenth century .It consists of three floors, the ground floor has shader and a store, its ceiling consists of cross-necklace mounted on granite column.The first floor is for men. It consists of windows rooms topped by skylights. The main chamber is composed of cabinets’ of wood decorated with arabesque and topped with cavities in the walls or cupboards to place their luggage, and the niche as well. There are also yellow, green Maharabs.

 

 

 

-Arab Killi House:  It has been distinguished among the ancient houses. It gained also its status as such it has been chosen to be a museum that reflecting tournaments and history of the city.


 Governor Rasheed has built it in the first half of the second century AH (the eighteenth century) .It consisted of four floors. It consists of four floors, on the ground floor is an awning and has ceilings consisting of intersecting vaults, except for the cistern room, which has a wooden ceiling.

The second has windows made of grottoes. The hall is topped by a wooden iwan with a bright ceiling. It has a bathroom that is roofed with a shallow hollow dome and has glass. It also has a marble basin. Next to the bathroom there is a bench for rest and a door that leads to the bedroom. The second floor is summer and has a small room and a toilet.

 

 

 

 

-Thabet House: It has been built at the first half of the 12th century AH. It consists of three floors. The first one for men .The second one for women.It has also a wooden Mashrabeyas.

 

Ancient mosques:

-Zaghloul Mosque:It is the oldest mosque in the city and bears a memory dear to the hearts of the people of Rashid and all Egyptians, which is the victory over Fraser’s campaign.

From its minaret a shout (God is Great) erupted, signaling the start of the attack on the soldiers of the English campaign.

 This mosque was like Al-Azhar, where students of knowledge flocked to it and every Sheikh has its column there

 

-Ali al-Mahali Mosque: It was built in 1721 AD. It is located in the city center. It has been built on 99 columns of different shapes, with six decorated doors and its facades decorated with carved bricks. Each interface varied from the other.

 And in the middle of it is a plate, and the ablution is located to the west of the mosque, and it consists of an umbrella raised on 12 columns The mosque attributed to Ali al-Mahali who was  died in 901 AH and was buried in Rashid mosque.

 

-Abbasi Mosque: It is one of the most beautiful mosques. It located on the Nile .It has interfaces  that resemble the facades of archaeological  houses because it is decorated with beautiful ornaments made of carved bricks which are at the upper part .

The design of the entrance of the  mosque  is considered as a model for the entrances of mosques in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. As, it has a dome slatted from the outside it is considered one of the most beautiful domes of Rashid. The mosque was built by Mohamed Bey Tbozadh at the year 1809.

 

-
Qaitbay Citadel: It has been known by foreigners’ historians as Julian Castle. It has been established by Sultan al-Ashraf Qaitbay in 1479 AD to defend this gap and to defend Egypt’s important entrance as well. It is rectangular in shape. It is different in design from the Bay Citadel in Alexandria.

 

-
 Rosetta Stone:In August 1799, Bouchard, an officer of the French campaign, found the stone known as the Rosetta Stone under the ruins of this castle, through which the symbols of the ancient hieroglyphs were deciphered, thus revealing all the Egyptian history, which led to the fame of the city becoming more and more popular.

 

It is a stone of black basalt dating back to the year 196 BC. On it is recorded a record of the priests’ pledge of allegiance to King Ptolemy V and recognition of him as king of the country, and this stone is written on it in three languages: hieroglyphics, demotic and ancient Greek, and the French scientist Champollion has been working for a long time on it Studying these inscriptions on the stone until he reached the decipherment of the ancient Egyptian language.

 The stone was transferred to London according to the terms of the 1801 treaty between the English and the French, and it is now considered one of the most important artifacts displayed in the British Museum in London, and there are Egyptian attempts to recover it.

 

Other Historic Places:

-Hamman Azouz: It is built in the nineteenth-century. It is also a fine example of a traditional bathhouse with a lovingly restored interior decorated with marble floors and fountains. It’s not in use today, however, and was closed at the time of writing, but has been open to the public in the past.

 

 -Abu Shaheen Mill: Located right next to El-Amasely House, the House of Abu Shaheen has a reconstructed mill right on the ground floor. The Mill is the oldest in Egypt dating back 200 years and has enormous wooden beams and planks. The gears and teeth of the Mill were pushed in a circle by an animal.

A courtyard lies right next to it where horses were stationed and the roof of the stables is supported by granite columns with Graeco-Roman inscriptions on them.

 

Finally, Various Islamic monuments of houses, mosques and castles located in the city have  suffered until the early eighties of the last century from a deterioration  state due to the ignoring that have been exposed to until  plans have been put  to save them through successive renovations

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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