29 May 2024 02:46 AM

Aswan

Tuesday، 21 November 2023 - 11:11 PM
Aswan

It is a city situated on the eastern bank of the Nile 899 km south of Cairo.  It is a linkage of Egypt and Sudan, as a gateway to the heart of the African continent. So, it has become an important trading center.

Aswan main tourist's sites:

-Elephantine Island: It was one of the most powerful forts on Egypt's southern borders. It lies opposite the old Cataract Hotel. And their idol god at that time was "Khnum”. It has the shape of a ram's head. So, it is better to see by yourself and wander on the island before you start thanks to its temples and museum.

-Al Gizeira temples: The Island has remnants of stone temples from different ages and appears on the gate of one of the southern Temple which represents Alexander II to an Egyptian king's body and provides offerings to the various god

-Aswan Museum’s annex: It is in Elephantine Island. Established over two years, the Annex is located 10 meters north of the Museum and contains three display rooms its area is about 220 meters that host 1,788 artifacts discovered during the joint German-Swiss expedition to the island in the period 1969-1998.

-The Aswan Museum’s Annex has been opened on 21st February 2017. The content of Aswan Museum’s annex varied between stone utensils; funerary paintings; a group of funerary furniture; royal statues including a statue of King Thutmose II of pink granite; Costume and amulets, as well as a collection of coins from the Greco-Roman era.

 -The Nilometer:  It is dating back to the Roman era. The application of measures in the Nile in various languages as Greek; democratic and Arabic languages was due to an early date

 -Agilkia Island: It embraces the Philae Temple that has been submerged by the Nile water. The Philae Temple has been dismantled and regrouped over the island, which is 500 meters from the Philae temple site. Sound and light are also displayed in Philae temples in all different languages.

- Amoun Island: It is a small island. A tourist hotel has been erected there.

-Tombs of the Nobles: These are rock tombs located on the West Bank of Aswan.

 Those tombs were for Aswan and Elephantine rulers. They are engraved in the sandy rock and date back to ancient times.

The tombs have historical significance that places them at the forefront of the tombs in Upper Egypt, and the most important of those tombs (Mekho and Sabni).

 It also gives an idea of the architectural style of the tombs, as well as the titles and functions that have been there at South rulers.

The inscriptions on the walls of these tombs illustrated the role these princes played in protecting the country or in making trips inside Africa.

-The Monastery of St. Simeon: It dates back to 6th century A.D. It is one of the most intact Coptic monasteries which includes a church, whose frescoes are still extant representing Jesus Christ and the Saints.

 -The unfinished Obelisk: A huge obelisk incompletely carved, about 41 meters high, and more than 117 tons in weight. It owes its importance to the fact that it shows the techniques the ancient Egyptians used in carving obelisks.


-Philae Temple: It is located in the south of Aswan City, Aswan Reservoir. Philae, Arabic Jazīrat Fīlah (“Philae Island”) or Jazīrat al-Birba (“Temple Island”), island in the Nile River between the old Aswan Dam and the Aswan High Dam, in Aswān muḥāfaẓah (governorate), southern Egypt.

Its ancient Egyptian name was P-aaleq; the Coptic-derived name Pilak (“End,” or “Remote Place”) probably refers to its marking the boundary with Nubia.

The conventional name (Philae) is Greek, but locally the site is known as Qaṣr Anas al-Wujūd, for a hero of The Thousand and One Night. The worship group has been devoted to the worship of the god Isis, but the island contained the temples of Hathor, Amenhotep, and other temples.


-Nubian ancient temples: The name of Nubia is called on the land located from the south of the first waterfall of the Nile in Aswan to the area of Dongola after the fourth waterfall in Sudan.

This area allows some of the temples that entered service and others in the development stage, namely (the Temple of Dakka, Derr, al-Sebua, The Temple of Maharraqa, Abraim Palace, Banot Cemetery, and Abu Odeh Cemetery

-Kalabsha Temple: Its construction dates back to the era of the Roman Emperor Octavius ​​​​August (30 BC). It was moved from its original location on the western mainland of the Nile and was rebuilt near the site of the High Dam, which is the largest temple built of sandstone in Nubia. Its walls also bear texts and inscriptions representing the Egyptian story of Isis and Osiris.


-Beit El Wali Temple: A temple carved in the rock among the five temples built by Ramesses II in Nubia. It contains a courtyard, a hall for columns, and a booth modernized with multicolored inscriptions and texts. It also has war scenes that represent the king in the battlefield.

 Among the small temples that exist in ancient Nubia are the al-Dakka temple - the al-Durr temple - the Sebua area and Amda - the Amada temple - the Muharraq temple - the ruins of Ibrim - the Banut temple - the Abu Odeh cemetery - the great Abu Simbel temple - the small Abu Simbel temple.

-Abu Simbel: Situated 280km south of Aswan, the two temples of Abu Simbel are the most magnificent temples in the world.

 The first temple was built by the mighty Pharaoh Ramses II, the other for his wife Queen Nefertari. Their relocation is an achievement supported and managed by UNESCO.

-The Great Temple of Abu Simbel (Ramses II): It is built by Ramses II. It is distinguished by its main façade with four colossal statues of Ramses II sit enthroned wearing the double crown of Upper and Lower Egypt. The temple was dedicated to the sun god Ra' Horakhti.

The most interesting relic is the Qadesh battle scene recording his victories over the Hittites. It was built on a strict east–west axis so that the morning sun actually reached the innermost sanctuary at dawn, illuminating the statues of Ptah, Amon, Ramses II, and Ra, twice a year on 22 February and on 22nd October.


-The Small Temple of Abu Simbel (Nefertari): The Great Temple is situated in the north of the Great Temple. It has been built by Ramses II in honor of both his beloved wife Nefertari and Hathor, the god of love, music, and beauty. The temple is distinguished by its beautiful drawings and clarity of colors despite its small size compared to the large one.

Kom Ombo tourist attraction

-Kom Ombo Temple: It is in Kom Ombo town, 45 km north of Aswan. It is built on a hillside overlooking the Nile.

This temple was constructed in the Ptolemaic Roman era for the worship of the god Haroeris and Sobek, the crocodile god.

This temple is unique in its architectural structure. As, it is based on two axes, each of which is self-contained. An integrated lighting project has been worked out to illuminate the temple at night.


Edfu tourist attraction

-Edfu temple: It lies in Edfu town, 123 km north of Aswan. It dates to the Ptolemaic period. It was dedicated to the worship of God Horus represented as a falcon.  Its wall depicted the story of Horus and his revenge on his uncle.

El-Kab: El-kab is the present name of the ancient site of Nekheb.

It is in the form of a punishment bird. The prevailing belief is that the goddess helps in royal delivery. The area has many cemeteries, including:

-Tomb of the nobles

-Tomb of Pahari

-Tomb of Ahmose, son of Ibana

-Tomb of Renni

-Tomb of Setau

Likewise, the small temples together

 -The Temple of Amenhotep III

- The Temple of Thoth

- The Ptolemaic Temple.

Aswan’s modern tourist attraction
-High dam: It is one of the 20th-century engineering miracles. It is also one of the largest embankment dams in the world. As it has been built to protect the country from the high floods that have flooded the country.

Its height is 3600 m, the maximum height above the river bottom is 111 meters, and its width is 40 meters at the top. The high dam is far from Aswan, about 20 km south.

The High Dam construction story dates to July 23, 1952, revolution. The collective benefits of Aswan High Dam (AHD) are increasing the Egyptian water resource, controlling, and regulating floods, protecting Egypt from potential frequent droughts, increasing agricultural productivity, and completely regulating the river water.


-Aswan Reservoir: It is located in the south of Aswan City.

 It has been built in 1902 AD. Its construction marked the beginning of irrigation in the country. It has been twice installed. The first one was in 1912, while the second was in 1933. It also contained 180 gates to control water behaviors.


Finally, the first Aswan Reservoir power station has been established in 1953. while the second one was in 1985.

-Nubian Museum: UNESCO adopted an international campaign to contribute to building the museum, and in 1986 the foundation stone of the project was laid. It took about ten years to build, and it opened in November 1997.

What distinguish Nubian Museum: Inside the Nubian Museum, the visitor will find different monuments from different eras, but the most famous masterpiece in this museum is a Skelton of a human being, this Skelton age is about 20 thousand years old, and it was discovered in Aswan in 1982.

The first piece that entered the exhibition, was a statue of the famous Egyptian Pharaoh Ramses II, which was found in the Nubia region and was transferred to the museum before its construction was completed, to be the first to receive visitors.

 Display areas in the Nubia Museum:

 -The Nubian environment.

-The birth of the Nile Valley.

 -Prehistoric Era.

 -Neolithic civilization.

  -Pyramids era

- The Simple Nubian Era.

- The Kush Nubian Kingdom

 -The Egyptian civilization in Nubia.

- Family 25.

 -The Kingdom of Meroe.

 -Late era

-Christian Nubia.

-Islamic Nubia.

 -Irrigation.

 -International Campaign (UNESCO).

  -Folklore section

-The most important artifacts of different eras:

- The statue of King Ramses II.

- Palace of Abrim Palace.

 -Model of Philae Temple.

-Stone painting of Amenhotep.

 -Baboon and scorpion compartment.

- Supplies and decorations for horses.

-Tombstones of the statue of Baa (The Spirit).

-Amardis statue, Basmatik painting.

- A stone stela of Tanut Amun

 -A model of the Al-Ahmadi Model of an Islamic cemetery.

-The wheelbarrow and the shadoof are a skeleton from the Kobaniyya Valley

-A model of a Nubian burial from the first group

-King Khafre statue.

-Aswan Museum: It is in the east of the ancient city. The museum has antiquities from the Greek and Roman times that were found in Aswan and Nubia.

-Plantation (Kitchener) Island: It lies in the mid-stream near Elephantine Island. It is a natural exhibition of exotic plants and trees in hot and tropical areas.

-Mausoleum of Aga Khan: The Mausoleum of Aga Khan is the mausoleum of Aga Khan III, Sir Sultan Muhammed Shah, who died in 1957. The mausoleum is located at Aswan, along the Nile of Egypt, since Egypt was formerly the center of power of the Fatimids.

 The mausoleum is built in the style of the Fatimid tombs in Cairo. It is built of pink limestone, while the tomb is built of white Carrara marble.

The Aga Khan was buried there two years after he died since he used to spend part of the winter season living in a nearby villa.

A red rose is laid on the Aga Khan's tomb every day--a practice first started by the Aga Khan's wife, Begum Om Habibeh Aga Khan

-The Unknown Soldier Tomb:  It is a cemetery that comprises the martyrs’ remains from the Toshka Battle. It is called the Nujoumi Cemetery. It was inaugurated in 1924 and 35 martyrs of the Mahdi army were buried there, on Aswan Road.

Amun Village: It is located on the western bank of the High Dam Lake in the Sahari city of Aswan. It overlooks Lake Nasser on an area of 48 acres, and there is also a large tourist hotel in the village.

-Aswan Natural Protectorates:

-Salouga and Ghazal: This reserve is located inside the Nile River, about 3 km north of the Aswan Reservoir. This is a unique environment distinguished by its natural green cladding. It is also a shelter for many rare, resident, visiting, and migratory birds.

This reserve also includes the presence of about 94 species of plants, and the empowerment of more than 60 species of rare and endangered birds, some of which were recorded by the antiquities of the ancient Egyptians, such as the black ibis.

 Among the birds threatened with extinction: are the osprey, the purple water chicken, which is of great benefit in purifying the environment from agricultural pests and decomposing residues, and among the resident and visiting birds: the eagle, the hoopoe, the Egyptian geese, the beaver, the bird of paradise, the nightingale, and others.

-Wadi al-Alaqi Reserve: This reserve is located 180 km east of Aswan, and the valley extends 275 km in length and has an average width of one km. This reserve is a fertile area for basic scientific research that is related to studies of geology, animals, and plants, and about 92 species of evergreen plants have been recorded such as Kalakh, Hanbala, Sinamaki, Miswak, and others. And 15 species of mammals such as camels, goats, wild donkeys, deer, hyenas, and others.16 resident birds also live in it, such as bustards, hawks, partridges, vultures, eagles, ducks, ostriches, and others.

This is for purposes of some types of reptiles such as snakes and scorpions and also includes a large number of invertebrates that live mostly under shrubs such as ants and beetles that have an important role in the ecological balance and soil fertility, and this reserve has been included under the list of biosphere reserves under the supervision of UNESCO.


-Elba Natural Reserve: Elba Mountain (1437 meters) is in the far southeast corner of Egypt. It faces the northern winds loaded with moisture that condense in the form of fog on the high mountain slopes with a cold climate, which allowed the presence of many trees, including the sprouting tree, of which there is no Outside the Elba area in the Egyptian desert.


In the valleys there are abundant lobster trees, the fruits of which are of high medicinal benefit, and, we find sial trees in an extraordinary density more than they resemble an open forest, and these dense trees live on the pink-breasted gnash, which is a resident bird and does not exist in Egypt except in the Elba area.


-Therapeutic Tourism in Aswan: Aswan is distinguished from a therapeutic aspect in that its atmosphere is very suitable for patients with kidneys, respiratory system, and rheumatic diseases, and it has two centers for treatment by sand and water, and the method of treatment in the two centers are programs dedicated to burying in the hot sand in a studied scientific manner.

Many experts and international institutions have made a lot of research about the validity of Aswan atmosphere in the treatment of chronic diseases has been proven, due to its high rates of ultraviolet radiation, and the percentage of humidity reaching 43.4% during the period from December to March, while the percentage is in England during the period Between 75% to 100%. Also, the sunshine throughout the year with the dry weather creates an ideal climate for the treatment of rheumatic diseases such as bronchitis, asthma, and chronic kidney inflammation. There are two centers for sand and water treatment in Aswan.

A tourist village is expected to be established in the area extending between the Cataract Hotel and the Aswan Reservoir, with special centers for physiotherapy, and sanatoriums for patients with rheumatism and skin diseases, which will make available there a lot of theatres, cinemas, sports stadiums, and the construction of berths for Nile boats and cruise ships.

As the region was famous for its primitive treatment by burial in the sand.

 


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